Table 2-4. Microwave Ashing References

Matrix Application Ashing vessel Conditions Detection Reference
Alfalfa B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn Porcelain crucibles

20 min at 600 W or

40 min at 600 W

ICP-OES (D1)
Artichoke leaves Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn Silicon ring

30 min at 650 W,

10 min at 0 W

F-AAS (D2)
Bean B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn Porcelain crucibles

20 min at 600 W or

40 min at 600 W

ICP-OES (D1)
Blood Pb Quartz test tubes 30 min at 700 W

ASV

DPP

(D3)
Citrus B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn Porcelain crucibles

20 min at 600 W or

40 min at 600 W

ICP-OES (D1)
Coal Residual ash Quartz fiber crucibles 30 min at 750°C Weight (D4)
Coal Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

45 min at 750°C Weight (D5)
Coke from coal Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

65 min at 750°C Weight (D5)
Corn B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn Porcelain crucibles

20 min at 600 W or

40 min at 600 W

ICP-OES (D1)
Dry pet food Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

30 min at 600°C Weight (D5)
Fine paper Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

35 min at 800°C Weight (D5)
High density polyethylene TiO2 Porcelain crucible 3-4 min at 800°C Weight (D6)

High density polypropylene/

titanium dioxide

Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

15 min at 800°C Weight (D5)

High density polypropylene/

carbon black filler

Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

12 min at 600°C Weight (D5)
Human blood Sb, Te Oxygen plasma asher 20 min at 100 W MIES (microwave induced emission spectrometry) (D7)

IAEA

Milk powder

11

Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 6-20 hours at 350 W

F-AAS

ETV-AAS

HG-AAS

(D8)
Linseed Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 6-20 hours at 350 W

F-AAS

ETV-AAS

HG-AAS

(D8)
Low density polyethylene TiO2 Porcelain crucible 1.5-5 min at 800°C Weight (D6)
Low density polyethylene SiO2 Porcelain crucible 3-4 min at 800°C Weight (D6)
Milk Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 10-15 hr at 200 W DP-ASV (D9)
 Milk choclate  Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn  Oxygen plasma asher  6-20 hr at 350 W  F-AAS, ETV-AAS,HG-AAS  (D8)

 NIST

Citrus leaves

1572

 Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn  Sillicon ring

 30 min at 650 W,

10 min at 0 W

 F-AAS  (D2)

 NIST

Tomato leaves

1573

 Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn  Sillicon ring

 30 min at 650 W,

10 min at 0 W

 F-AAS (D2)
Nutella Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 6-20 hours at 350 W

F-AAS

ETV-AAS

HG-AAS

(D8)
Peanut butter Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 6-20 hours at 350 W

F-AAS

ETV-AAS

HG-AAS

(D8)
Petrochemical sludge Residual ash

Porcelain crucibles or

quartz fiber crucibles

60 min at 900°C Weight (D5)
Plankton Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 10-15 hr at 200 W DP-ASV (D10)
Polypropylene TiO2 Porcelain crucible 3-4 min at 800°C Weight (D6)
Potato B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn Porcelain crucibles

20 min at 600 W or

40 min at 600 W

ICP-OES (D1)
Soybean flour Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 6-20 hours at 350 W

F-AAS

ETV-AAS

HG-AAS

(D8)
Suspended particulate Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn Oxygen plasma asher 10-15 hr at 200 W DP-ASV (D10)
 Tomato  B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn  Porcelain crucibles

 20 min at 600 W or

40 min at 600 W

 ICP-OES  (D1)
 Wet pet food  Residual ash  Porcelain crucibles or quartz fiber crucibles  30 min at 800 oC  Weight  (D6)

References:

D1. Zhang, H.; Dotson, P. in "The Use of Microwave Muffle Furnace for Dry Ashing Plant Tissue Samples"; Agricultural Testing and Research Laboratory, Farmington, NM, 1994
D2. Morales Rubio, A.; Salvador, A.; De La Guardia, M. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 1992, 342, 452-456.
D3. Matsumura, S.; Karai, I.; Takise, S.; Kiyota, I.; Shinagawa, K.; Horiguchi, S. Osaka City Med. J. 1982, 28, 145-148.
D4. Carr, S. E.; Moser, C. R. , Matthews, NC 1990; 52-56.
D5. Carr, S. E.; Moser, C. R. , Chicago, IL 1991.
D6. Budke, C. C.; McFadden, D. G. Plast. Compd. 1990, March/April.
D7. Van Montfort, P. F. E.; Agterdenbos, J.; Jutte, B. A. H. G. Anal. Chem. 1979, 51, 1553-1557.
D8. Dunemann, L.; Meinerling, M. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 1992, 342, 714-718.
D9. Gillain, G.; Rutagengwa, J. Analusis 1985, 13, 471-473.
D10. Gillain, G. Talanta 1982, 29, 651-654.

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