Table 2-3: Microwave Drying References

Matrix Application Drying platform Conditions Comments Reference
Aqueous soln Evaporation 140 mL, 8 cm tall beakers 7-20 min at 1200 W Only mentioned in a table (C1)
Barium carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Barium sulfate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Barium sulfate analysis precipitate Drying Crucible 2 min at 90 W Analysed barium sulfate SRMs 205 and 210 (Thorn Smith, Troy MI ) (C3)
Beef lard Moisture content Fiber glass pads Not reported Sample put between drying pads (C4)
Beef meat Moisture content Fiber glass pads Not reported Sample put between drying pads (C4)
Beef muscle Moisture content Fiber glass pads Not reported Sample put between drying pads (C4)
Beef, low fat Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Beef, medium fat Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Bologna Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Brine shrimp Drying Not reported 2 hours at 350 W Not focus of paper (C6)
Calcium carbonate Drying Not reported 2, 6, 10 min at 500 W Does drying affect analytical results? (C7)
Calcium sulfate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Canned ham Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Carp Drying Petri dish 650 W to constant weight (~15 min) Sample homogenized before drying, however intact analysis OK if less than 5 mm thick (C8)
Cheddar cheese Solids content Fiber glass pads 2-6 min at 450-600 W Round robin study - variability seen (C9)
Chicken franks Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Coal Inert drying 140 mL, 8 cm tall beakers 60 min at 1200 W Only mentioned in a table (C1)
Coal Total moisture Not reported 20 min at 420 W Compared to conventional oven drying (C10)
Coal Moisture Fiber glass pads 480 W to constant weight (~11 min) No degradation seen after 66 min heating (C11)
Cobalt carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Copper sulfate (pentahydrate) Drying Fiber glass pads or      
Fiber glass pad + Thermapad 25 min at 600 W Compared with oven drying (C12)    
Cottage cheese Solids content Fiber glass pads 2-6 min at 450-600 W Round robin study - variability seen (C9)
Dairy products Water content 140 mL, 8 cm tall beakers 3-4 min at 1200 W Only mentioned in a table (C1)
Detergents Solids content Pyrex petri dish 2 min at ? W Equivalent to oven drying (C13)
Drierite Drying Large porclain evaporating dish 20 min at 500 W or    
      10 min at 1000 W   (C14)
Fibers Moisture content 140 mL, 8 cm tall beakers 6-10 min at 1200 W Only mentioned in a table (C1)
Flour Moisture Fiber glass pads 8 min at 415 W Sample size determined by type of flour (C15)
Franks Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Iron (III) carbonate Drying Not reported 2, 6, 10 min at 500 W Does drying affect analytical results? (C7)
Iron oxide ore slurry Drying Fluted filter paper on pyrex dish 15-60 sec at 735 W For slurry preparation (C16)
Lead carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Lead sulfate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Liver Drying Petri dish 650 W to constant weight (~15 min) Sample homogenized before drying, however intact analysis OK if less than 5 mm thick (C8)
Lucerne Drying Petri dish 650 W to constant weight (~15 min) Sample homogenized before drying, however intact analysis OK if less than 5 mm thick (C8)
Maganese carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Magnesium carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)
Mechanically deboned chicken Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Milk Solids content Fiber glass pads 2-6 min at 450-600 W Round robin study - variability seen (C9)
Mussels Drying 120 mL PTFE vessels 3 min at 385 W,5 min at 555 W Compared to oven drying at 110°C for 24 hours (C17)
Nickel carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)

NIST

Milk powder

1549

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

8 min at 600 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Coal

1632

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

8 min at 600 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Brick Clay

679

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

2 min at 600 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Limestone

88

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

5 min at 600 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Flint Clay

97

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

5 min at 540 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Plastic Clay

98

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

5 min at 540 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Rice flour

1568

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

2 min at 120 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

NIST

Wheat flour

1567

Drying

Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

2 min at 120 W Compared with oven drying (C12)

 NIST

River sediment

2704

 Drying

 Fiber glass pads or

Fiber glass pad + Thermapad

 4 min at 480 W  Compared with oven drying  (C12)
Octocoral Drying Glass beaker with watchglass 20-50 min at 240 W Followed by oven drying (C18)
Pork lard Moisture content Fiber glass pads Not reported Sample put between drying pads (C4)
Pork meat Moisture content Fiber glass pads Not reported Sample put between drying pads (C4)
Pork, high fat Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Pork, low fat Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Processed tomato products Total solids Fiber glass pads 4 min at 600 W Collaborative study report (C19)
Sausage Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Sausages Moisture content Fiber glass pads Not reported Sample put between drying pads (C4)
Seafood Drying Not reported ? min at 90 W Found to be equivalent to freeze drying (C20)
Silica gel Drying Large porclain evaporating dish 20 min at 500 W or    
10 min at 1000 W   (C14)      
Sludge Drying 140 mL, 8 cm tall beakers 20 min at 1200 W Only mentioned in a table (C1)
Sludge Moisture Fiber glass pads 100 min at 600 W General discussion paper (C21)
Smoked ham Moisture Fiber glass pads 600 W to dryness Collaborative study (C5)
Sodium hydrogen          
phosphate          
(heptahydrate) Drying Fiber glass pads or      
Fiber glass pad + Thermapad 6 min at 600 W Compared with oven drying (C12)    
Sweet corn seed Moisture Not reported 600 W to constant weight Estimation of maturities of seeds (C22)
Tilapia Drying Watch glass 750 W to dryness Used a combined microwave convection oven (C23)
Titanium dioxide slurry Moisture Fiber glass pads 4 min at 600 W General discussion paper (C21)
Tomatoes Total solids Not reported AOAC method Results depend on microwave type. Need certification (C24)
Waste water Solids and water content Porclain, high silica glass or polymethylene beakers, 250 mL, 8 cm tall 600 W till boiling, evaporate at just below boiling, 10 min at 600 W (C25)  
Zinc carbonate Drying Porclain/glass beaker with ribbed watchglass 15 min at 700 W Can handle 1-6 20 g samples with up to 68% water content (C2)

References

C1. Lautenschläger, W. Spectroscopy 1989, 4, 16-21.
C2. Hesek, J. A.; Wilson, R. C. Anal. Chem. 1974, 46, 1160.
C3. Tadros, S. H.; Frazier, D. O. Analyst 1990, 115, 229.
C4. Crosland, A. R.; Bratchell, N. J. Assoc. Public Anal. 1988, 26, 89-95.
C5. Bostian, M. L.; Fish, D. L.; Webb, N. B.; Arey, J. J. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1985, 68, 876-880.
C6. Blust, R.; Van der Linden, A.; Verheyen, E.; Decleir, W. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 1988, 3, 387-393.
C7. Worner, H. K.; Standish, N. Analyst 1989, 114, 115-116.
C8. Koh, T. S. Anal. Chem. 1980, 52, 1978-1979.
C9. Barbano, D. M.; Della Valle, M. E. J. Food Prot. 1984, 47, 272-278.
C10. Sumner, J. S.; Morrow, W. D. J. Coal Qual. .
C11. Jacobs, M. L. J. Coal Qual. 1984, 12-15.
C12. Beary, E. S. Anal. Chem. 1988, 60, 742-746.
C13. Benz, C. Soap Cosmet. Chem. Spec. 1978.
C14. Aldrichimica Acta, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1988, pages 30. (Checked 8/15/95)
C15. Davis, A. B.; Lai, C. S. Cereal Chem. 1984, 61, 1-4.
C16. Kuehn, D. G.; Brandvig, R. L.; Lundeen, D. C.; Jefferson, R. H. Int. Lab. 1986, 16, 30-41.
C17. Ybanez, N.; Cervera, M. L.; Montoro, R.; Guardia, M. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 1991, 6, 379-384.
C18. Jaffe, R.; Fernandez, C. A.; Alvarado, J. Talanta 1992, 39, 113-117.
C19. Chin, H. B.; Kimball Jr, J. R.; Hung, J.; Allen, B. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1985, 68, 1081-1083.
C20. Cabrera, C.; Lorenzo, M. L.; Gallego, C.; Lopez Martinez, M. C.; Lillo, E. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1994, 42, 126-128.
C21. Collins, M. J.; Gilman, L. B. Powder and Bulk Engineering 1988.
C22. Borowski, A. M.; Fritz, V. A. Hortic. Sci. 1990, 25, 361.
C23. Lamleung, S. Y.; Cheng, K. W.; Lam, Y. W. Analyst 1991, 116, 957-959.
C24. Wang, S. L. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1987, 70, 758-759.
C25. Krofta, M.; Wang, L. K. in "Development of a Microwave Method for Rapid and Accurate Analysis of Solids and Water Content"; LIR/04-81/5, U.S. Department of Commerce, April 30, 1981, 1981

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