Table 2-15: Hydrofluoric Acid


Volatile from

HF

Volatile from

HF and HClO4

Volatile from

HF and H2SO4

Insoluble

Strong Fluoride Complex

Fluoride Complex Prevents Hydrolysis

As(III,V) (O1-6)

As 100% (O1, 3, 7-9)

As (O1, 2)

Ac (O6)

Al(III) (O3)

Al (O1)

B (BF3) (O1-5, 10)

B 100% (O1, 3, 7-9)

B (O1, 2)

Actinides (III, IV) (O3, 6)

Be (II) (O3)

B(III) (O3)

Cr (O2, 5)

Cr varies (O1, 3, 7-9)

Cr (O1, 2)

Al(III) (O6)

Co(III) (O3)

Hf(IV) (O1, 3, 6, 9)

Ge(IV) (O2, 4-6)

Cs 0.2% closed, 1.3% open (O5)

Ge (O1, 2)

Ba (O3, 4, 6, 11, 12)

Cr(III) (O3)

Mo (O1)

Mo (O10)

Ge upto 10% (O1, 3, 7-9)

Hg (O1, 2)

Be (O6, 12)

Fe(III) (O3)

Nb(V) (O1, 3, 5, 13, 14)

Nb(V) (O1, 2, 4, 10)

Hg (O1, 9)

Os (O1, 2)

Ca (O2-4, 6, 9, 11, 12)

Ga(III) (O3)

Si(IV) (O1) (O3, 6)

OsO4 (O1)

Mn upto 3% (O3, 7-9)

Re (O1, 2)

Cu (O12)

Ge (O3)

Sn(IV) (O3, 9)

Pb (O2)

Os (O1)

Ru (O1, 2)

Fe(II, III) (O6)

In(III) (O3)

Ta(V) (O1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 13, 14)

Re2O7 (O1, 5)

Rb 0.3% closed, 1.4% open (O5)

Sb (O1, 2)

K (O6)

Mn(III) (O3)

Ti(IV) (O1, 3, 5, 6, 9)

RuO4 (O1)

Re varies (O1, 3, 7-9)

Se (O1, 2)

La (O2, 6)

Nb(V) (O3, 5, 6, 9)

V (O1, 3)

Sb(III,V) (O2, 4-6)

Ru (O1)

Si (O1, 2)

Lanthanids (III,IV) (O3, 4, 6, 9)

Pa (O6)

W (VI) (O1, 3, 5)

Se(IV) (O2-6)

Se(VI) (O5, 6)

Sb upto 10% (O1, 3, 7, 8)

Tl (O5)

Li (O3)

Sb (O9)

Sb(V) (O9)

Zr(IV) (O1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 14)

Si (SiF4) (O1, 2, 4, 5, 10)

Se varies (O1, 3, 7-9)

 

Mg (O3, 4, 6, 9, 12)

Sc(III) (O3)

 

Sn (O2)

Si 100% (O1, 3, 7, 8)

 

Na (O6)

Sn(II,V) (O3, 6, 9)

 

Ta(V) (O1, 2, 4, 10)

Tl (O5)

 

Pb(II) (O3, 6, 9, 12)

Th(IV) (O3)

 

Te(IV) (O2, 4, 5)

Te(VI) (O5)

   

Ra (O6, 12)

Y(III) (O3)

 

Ti(IV) (O1, 2, 4, 10)

   

Sc (O3, 6)

   

V (O10)

   

Sr (O3, 4, 6, 9, 12)

   

W (O10)

   

Th(IV) (O5)

   

Zn (O2)

   

U(IV,VI) (O4, 5)

   

Zr (O2)

   

Y (O2, 3, 6)

   
     

Zn (O12)

   

References:

O1 Anderson, R. Sample Pretreatment and Separation; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1987.
O2 Zehr, B. D. American Laboratory 1992, December, 24-29.
O3 Headridge, J. B. CRC Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 1972, 461-490.
O4 Bock, R. A Handbook of Decomposition Methods in Analytical Chemistry, 1st ed.; John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1979.
O5 Sulcek, Z.; Povondra, P.; Dolezal, J. CRC Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 1977, 255-323.
O6 Sulcek, Z.; Povondra, P. Methods of Decomposition in Inorganic Analysis; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1989.
O7 Schilt, A. A. Perchloric Acid and Perchlorates; G. Frederick Smith Chemical Company: Columbus, OH, 1979.
O8 Chapman, F. W.; Marvin, G. G.; Tyree Jr., S. Y. Analytical Chemistry 1949, 21, 700-701.
O9 Bajo, S. In Preconcentration Techniques for Trace Elements; Alfassi, Z. B., Wai, C. M., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1992, pp 3-31.
O10 Mizuike, A. Enrichment Techniques for Inorganic Trace Analysis; Springer-Verlag: New York, 1983.
O11 Scott, W. W. Scott's Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis, 5th ed.; D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.: New York, 1939.
O12 Treadwell, F. P.; Hall, W. T. Analytical Chemistry, 9th English ed.; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1937.
O13 Bogen, D. C. In Treatise on Analytical Chemistry; Kolthoff, I. M., Elving, P. J., Eds.; Interscience: New York, 1982; Vol. 5: Part I, pp 1-22.
O14 Willard, H. H.; Rulfs, C. L. In Treatise on Analytical Chemistry; Kolthoff, I. M., Elving, P. J., Eds.; Interscience: New York, 1961; Vol. 2: Part I, pp 1027-1050.

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